APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. Refer to Publication manual of the American Psychological Association in the library [REF BF76.7 .P83 2001].
The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.
|Resource Type||Example Citation||Rules for Citation|
|Book||Xinnong, C. (1999). Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion. Beijing, China: Foreign Language Press.|
|Reference Book – No Author||Miller, B. F. (Ed.). (1970). Family Health Guide and Medical Encyclopedia. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest.|
|Book Chapter||Moussa, M. (2012). Communication. In L. R. Burns, E. H. Bradley & B. J. Weiner (Eds.), Shortell & Kaluzny’s Health Care Management: Organization Design and Behavior (pp. 163-187). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.|
|Journal Article||Seo, Y., Lee, I., Jung, W., Ryu, H., Lim, J., Ryu, Y., …Chae, Y. (2014). Motion patterns in acupuncture needle manipulation. Acupuncture in Medicine, 32(5). 394-399. doi: 0.1136/acupmed-2014-010585|
|Magazine Article||Luchau, Til. (2015, July/August). Myofascial techniques: Working with the psoas. Massage & Bodywork, 30(4), 106-109.|
|Online Magazine Article||Bernstein, S. (2014, July/August). Benefits of Massage. Arthritis Today. Retrieved from www.arthritis.org|
|Newspaper Article||Hudnut, F. (2015, August). The roots of TCM in depression treatment. Acupuncture Today, pp. 12, 36, 39.|
|Online Newspaper Article||Phillips, J. S. (2015, October). Modernization of Article Chinese Medicine. Acupuncture Today. Retrieved from www.acupuncturetoday.com|
|Unpublished Dissertation||Wang, S., Yang, C., Wang, L., & Yang, Y. (2012). Analysis of pathology and the research of Chinese medicine treatment of gout (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of East-West Medicine, Sunnyvale, California.|
|Government report, accessed online||U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-00240.pdf|
|DVD||Hsuan, Y. (Producer). (2005). Acupuncture: An ancient tool for the modern world [DVD].|
|YouTube Video||Carter, J. (2013, October 10). How to improve digestion and stamina – acupressure, stomach 36 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?|
|Website content and Blogs||Blog entry|
Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to http://www.techcrunch.com
Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html
Entire Web site
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/).
*For multiple authors: Two authors, separate names with a “&”
Three to six authors, separate names with commas, and the last two with an “&”
- e.g. Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A.
Seven or more authors, list the first six names separated with commas, add an elipsis (three periods “…”), followed by the final name listed
- e.g. Rosler, A., Ulrich, C., Billino, J., Sterzer, P., Weidauer, S., Bernhardt, T., …Kleinschmidt, A.
** If doi is unavailable: retrieve [date], from [database name & website URL] or [website URL if the article is not from a database]
- sample citations and/or information are credited to Cornell University Library
- Cornell University Library APA Citation Style is accessible at https://www.library.cornell.edu/research/citation/apa
- This APA citation style samples is created by Kimberley Carle, Library Intern in 2015 and modified by Sophia Wang, Librarian in 2015.